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The Struggle to Care for Wounded GI's

Associated Press  |  June 24, 2007


More than 800 of them have lost an arm, a leg, fingers or toes. More than

100 are blind. Dozens need tubes and machines to keep them alive. Hundreds

are disfigured by burns, and thousands have brain injuries and mangled



These are America's war wounded, a toll that has received less attention

than the 3,500 troops killed in Iraq. Depending on how you count them, they

number between 35,000 and 53,000.


More of them are coming home, with injuries of a scope and magnitude the

government did not predict and is now struggling to treat.


"If we left Iraq tomorrow, we would have the legacy of all these people for

many years to come," said Dr. Jeffrey Drazen, editor-in-chief of the New

England Journal of Medicine and an adviser to the U.S. Department of

Veterans Affairs. "The military simply wasn't prepared for its own success"

at keeping severely wounded Soldiers alive, he said.


Survival rates today are even higher than the record levels set early in the

war, thanks to body armor and better care. For every American Soldier or

Marine killed in Iraq, 15 others have survived illness or injury there.


Unlike previous wars, few of them have been shot. The signature weapon of

this war - the improvised explosive device, or IED - has left a signature

wound: traumatic brain injury.


Soldiers hit in the head or knocked out by blasts - "getting your bell rung"

is the military euphemism - sometimes have no visible wounds but a fog of

war in their minds. They can be addled, irritable, depressed and unaware

they are impaired.


Only an estimated 2,000 cases of brain injury have been treated, but doctors

think many less obvious cases have gone undetected. One small study found

that more than half of one group of wounded troops arriving at Walter Reed

ArmyMedicalCenter had brain injuries. Around the nation, a new effort is

under way to check every returning man and woman for this possibility.


Some of those on active duty may have subtle brain damage that was missed

when they were treated for more visible wounds. Half of those wounded in

action returned to duty within 72 hours - before some brain injuries may

have been apparent. The military just adopted new procedures to spot these

cases, too.


Back home, concerns grow about care. The Walter Reed hospital scandal and

problems with some VA nursing homes have led Republicans and Democrats to

call for better care for this new crop of veterans.


A lucky few get Cadillac care at one of the VA's four polytrauma centers,

where the most complex wounds are treated with state-of-the-art techniques

and whiz-bang devices like "power knee" or "smart ankle" prosthetics. Others

battle bureaucracy to see doctors or get basic benefits in less ideal



Mental health problems loom large. More than a third of troops received

psychological counseling shortly after returning from Iraq, and a third of

those were diagnosed with a problem, a recent Pentagon study found. The

government plans to add 200 psychologists and social workers to help treat

post-traumatic stress disorder and other issues.


No one knows what the ultimate cost will be. HarvardUniversity economist

Linda Bilmes estimates the lifetime health-care tab for these troops will be

$250 billion to $650 billion - a wide range but a huge sum no matter how you

slice it.


Who are the wounded?


Lee Jones, 24, of Lumberton, N.C., was severely burned on the face, hands,

feet and legs when his Humvee was hit with an IED two years ago. A partial

amputee with speech and other problems from a severe brain injury, he now

does work therapy delivering mail at a VA hospital and tries to re-establish

life in a nearby apartment with a wife and baby daughter.


Marine Cpl. Joshua Pitcher, 22, from upstate New York, is a Purple Heart

recipient who returned to Iraq after he was shot in 2005. Half of his skull

was removed to allow his brain to swell as he now recovers from a brain

injury and shrapnel wounds from a grenade blast in February.


Maj. Thomas Deierlein, 39, is a New York City marketing executive who served

five years after graduating from West Point. Twelve years later, called up

as a reservist, he nearly died of bullet wounds that shattered his pelvis,

leaving him with a colostomy and learning to walk again.


Joseph "Jay" Briseno, 24, of Manassas Park, Va., was shot in the back of the

neck by an Iraqi in the early months of the war. One of the most severely

wounded, he is now a quadriplegic, on a breathing machine, blind and unable

to speak, but aware of what has happened to him.


"The mistake in Vietnam was, we hid the injured away from folks so they

didn't get to tell their stories. Now it's important that we let them tell

their stories to the public," said Dr.

Steven Scott, director of the PolytraumaRehabilitationCenter at the Tampa

VA MedicalCenter in Florida.


Counting the wounded can be contentious. Earlier this year, the Department

of Defense changed how it tallies war-related injuries and illness, dropping

those not needing air transport to a military hospital from the bottom-line



Bilmes, the economist, thinks this is disingenuous.


"An accident that happens while they're there is a cost of war, particularly

when you factor in the length of deployment" and injury-inducing conditions

like very hot weather, carrying heavy packs, and more vehicle accidents

because it is not safe to walk anywhere, she said.


As of June 2, 25,830 troops had been wounded in action. Of these, 7,675

needed airlifts to military hospitals and the rest were treated and remained

in Iraq.


There were another 27,103 non-battle-related air transports. Of those, 7,188

had injuries. Most occurred from vehicle accidents, training or work-related

accidents. Ten percent were sports injuries, said Dr. Michael Kilpatrick,

who tracks this information for the Defense Department.


Nearly 20,000 of these "non-hostile" airlifts were for illnesses or medical

issues: general symptoms like fever or pain needing tests or evaluation;

back problems; psychological problems adjusting to being in a war zone;

"affective psychoses" (not able to function or care for themselves);

neuroses; respiratory or chest symptoms; depression; head and neck problems

(including traumatic brain injury); epilepsy; infections, and muscle pulls

and strains.


"I don't want to try to say these are not war-related. Being in the military

is a very physically demanding job," Kilpatrick said.


For stress-related problems, the military tries "three hots and a cot" -

warm meals and a chance to sleep. Most of the time it works and troops

return to their unit, Kilpatrick said.


Of the troops air evacuated to the military hospital in Landstuhl, Germany,

20 percent return to Iraq and 80 percent go back to the United States for

more care or disability discharge.


Of the half-million troops who have left active duty and are eligible for VA

health care, about one-third have sought it. The most complicated cases end

up at one of the four polytrauma centers, in Tampa, Fla.; Richmond, Va.;

Palo Alto, Calif.; and Minneapolis.


These were formed after doctors realized they were missing problems -

amputees who were confused and unable to put on their prosthetics because of

undiagnosed brain injuries, and guys who could remember their therapy dog's

name but not their doctor's, or who could carry on a conversation but not

recall what they had for breakfast.


Troops at these hospitals have an average of six major impairments and 10

specialists treating them.


"The important thing to realize is you could have all of them at once" -

trouble speaking, seeing, walking, hearing, etc., Scott said.


Most of these injuries are caused by IED blasts, which send a pressurized

air wave through delicate tissues like the brain, sometimes send it smacking

against the inside of the skull and shearing fragile nerve connections that

control speech, vision, reasoning, memory and other functions. Lungs,

eardrums, spinal cords - virtually anything - can be damaged by the pressure

wave. Injuries also come from collapsing buildings, flying debris, heat,

burns or inhaled gases and vapors.


"Many of these you can't see on an X-ray," such as glass shards that can

cause internal bleeding, Scott said.


In prior wars, one of every five to seven troops surviving a war-related

wound had a traumatic brain injury, the military estimates. It's much higher

in this war.


A pilot project at Walter Reed in 2003 to screen 155 patients returning from

Iraq found that 62 percent had a brain injury.


"This is a very rapidly evolving area as a disease," with no screening test,

agreed-upon set of symptoms for diagnosis, or even a billing code, said

Kilpatrick, the military doctor.


Much needs to be learned about how to treat these injuries, he said, but

credited the military medical staff for having the chance.


"It's just amazing to me every day when I look at these numbers," he said.

"The good news is that the majority of these people who become ill or

injured ... are going to survive and are going to be able to return either

to the military or to civilian life and be productive."